Liberal Arts Capstone unit is about studying the basics of liberal arts including critical thinking, communication, diversity and ethics related with the competencies of workforce related needs and values. This course covers the study of learning about the analytical thinking skills by preparing different products for interdisciplinary approaches, constructing products for incorporating different resources and communication of original perspectives and creating coherent and well-organized argument based on public issues and learning various positions for written as well as oral communication skills. One of the biggest challenge faced by many graduate students is the development of an appropriate strategies to solving Wicked problems. 


Wicked problem

A wicked problem is a social or cultural problem that is difficult or impossible to solve for as many as four reasons: incomplete or contradictory knowledge, the number of people and opinions involved, the large economic burden, and the interconnected nature of these problems with other problems. Notably, trying to solve a wicked problem would end causing another problem

Characteristic of wicked problems

  1. here is no definitive formula for a wicked problem.
  2. Wicked problems have no stopping rule—there’s no way to know whether your solution is final.
  3. Solutions to wicked problems are not true or false; they can only be good or bad.
  4. You cannot immediately test a solution to a wicked problem.
  5. Every solution to a wicked problem is a “one-shot operation” because there is no opportunity to learn by trial and error—every attempt counts significantly.
  6. Wicked problems do not have a set number of potential solutions.
  7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique.
  8. Every wicked problem can be considered a symptom of another problem.
  9. There is always more than one explanation for a wicked problem because the explanations vary greatly depending on the individual’s perspective.
  10. The planner/designer has no right to be wrong and must be fully responsible for their actions.

Best wicked problems

  1. Global warming
  2. Poverty eradication
  3. Banning usage of Plastics
  4. Homelessness

Best approaches to Solving wicked problems

  1. Break down information into nodes and links.
  2. Visualize the information.
  3. Collaborate and include stakeholders in the process.
  4. Release solutions quickly and gather continuous feedback.
  5. Carry out multiple iterations.


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How I spent my day: Helping Older Adults Living with Alzheimer

Figure 1: Older Adult shopping


Currently, more attention is placed on Covid-19 as it continues to cause havoc on various countries of the world, especially on leading economies such as KSA and the US.  This notwithstanding, professionals at recognizes that other conditions, especially  Alzheimer importance cannot be underemphasized.  In the U.S., millions of people suffering from Alzheimer have many questions about their future, and, as such, they depend on proficient caregivers. Recently, I assisted two old women (Mrs. Taylor and Jones) suffering, from progressive mental deterioration because of general brain degeneration, to shop, cook, wash, dress, take their medication from reputable companies such as Pfizer Pharmaceutical Company and manage their money and bills, among other things. My goal as a caregiver was to provide my clients with professional, quality services that meet their needs. Consequently, notable attributes, skill and tools are paramount as discussed in the Article.


Integrity is a vital aspect of behaving decently with professional integrity. Generally, the public must be able to not only believe but also trust their caregivers. Patients contemplating medical and other care services have the right to be treated with the utmost truth. shows that tools, such as polygraphs, are used to assess recruits’ honesty and integrity. While I did not undergo the test myself, I behaved with utmost integrity when working Mrs. Taylor and Jones. Handling their credit cards and accessing their bank accounts required integrity and honesty. That way, I maintained my professionalism and enhanced my clients’ trust in me. Even so, the law identifies that some situations may involve therapeutic privilege. The concept entails a caregiver choosing not to disclose some information to their patients, which if disclosed, might extremely affect the health, wellbeing, and overall welfare of that patient. This qualification is vital as the professional is definitely being dishonest providing selective and partial account of truth, but does so based on what he or she believes is in patient’s best interest. I took advantage of that principle when one of my client’s children escaped a road accident with major injuries. However, we arrived at that decision with her older sons. In essence, I maintained honesty and integrity.

Job Skills and Knowledge

Working with old people requires skills and knowledge. Some jobs would require skill and job knowledge tests to assess specific types of skills and knowledge needed to perform certain jobs (Screenshot Text). In general, caregivers must be skilled and knowledgeable about the requisite personal care along with activities of daily living associated with working with older citizens. As such, when working with my clients, I was experienced in medication reminders, washing, and general housekeeping, depending on their needs and requests. More so, my background in the psychology of aging equipped me with the requisite knowledge for handling people with Alzheimer’s disease.


As noted by Joseph, the lead analyst at SpssExperts believes that “many employers use biodata instruments during recruitment”. According to biodata is the ‘background information and personal characteristics that can be used in a systematic fashion to select employees’. Bios are leveraged during networking activities as they present information about the attributes, reputation, tone, and makeup of a potential employee. Sundberg (n.d) demonstrates that 80 percent of job opportunities are filled by networking with friends. Personally, I can attest that networking was vital in securing me the two jobs. I got the first job through a family friend. She was married to Mrs. Taylor’s son and suggested to me that her mother-in-law needed someone to look after her. The second job came through a professional meeting. Mrs. Jones was a former patient at a hospital I volunteered in prior to her admission. During a meeting with my former colleagues, one of the nurses suggested to me she had an elderly patient who required assistance. Even so, in both instances, I was asked for my biodata considering that I was familiar with both networks. I considered a biodata because it was easy to explain a bit about myself.

Motor and Sensory Ability

Motor skill involves precise muscle movement aimed at performing a specific act. Generally, most purposeful movements entail the ability to sense or feel what those muscles are doing while performing the act. While working as a caregiver, I used the large muscle groups to walk my clients in the park and undertaking general household responsibilities. Besides, I used my fine motor skills to learn to type using the computer. On the other hand, sensory skills involve the precise perception of sensations via the body sensory organs. It entails auditory attention, depth perception, far vision, glare sensitivity, near vision, night vision, peripheral vision, sound localization, speech clarity, speech recognition, and visual color discrimination. For instance, my speech was clear, to enable my clients to understand me. Besides, when attending to other activities, such as driving my clients to the hospital, I took advantage of my peripheral vision to notice Mrs. Taylor and Jones when my eyes are looking ahead. Even so, it is advisable to accurately use sensory and motor skills without being overwhelmed.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the individual’s ability to be conscious of, control, and expression his or her feelings, and handle interpersonal relationships empathically and judiciously (Screenshot text). For one thing, emotional intelligence is vital to not only personal but also a professional success. While attending to my clients, I was cognizant of the need to be emotionally aware. I found that caregiving is an overwhelming task that requires one to define their emotions and those of their patients. With that knowledge, for instance, I could notice when Mrs. Taylor and Jones were downhearted, and, as such, motivated them by taking a walk together. That demonstrated my ability to harness their emotions and apply them to tasks such as thinking and problem solving. Personally, I managed my anxieties by listening to music while attending to my daily responsibilities. Furthermore, regular breaks and offs enabled me to regulate my emotions and come back rejuvenated to cheer up or calm down my clients.


Overall, older generations suffering from Alzheimer require caregivers with special abilities to attend to them. While working with Mrs. Taylor and Jones, my honesty enabled their families to trust me with them. I was not only skilled in housekeeping and running errands but also knowledgeable in the condition they were suffering from. Besides my biodata enhancing my chances of securing the jobs, I took advantage of my motor and sensory abilities, and emotional intelligence to provide adequate, quality services to my clients.






The Story of Pfizer Pharmaceutical Company

Figure 1: Pfizer Pharmaceutical Company


In today’s world where people pop a pill for every kind of ailment affecting them, being a top pharmaceutical company in the world means handling a huge responsibility and remaining innovative always. Currently, Pfizer is officially the biggest company in the pharmaceutical world, staying ahead of other medicine manufacturing firms in meeting the requirements of millions of people in the world. The company has been dealing with the production of medicine and vaccines for almost all the possible medical fields including diabetes, immunology, oncology, and cardiology. Most importantly, however, is the fact that the core brand focus thrives because of the company’s extensive in-house research. This essay will discuss the story of Pfizer Pharmaceutical company including how it was formed, how it started, how it works, its effect on the U.S. economy, and the scandal that have risen in the company.

How it was formed

Pfizer was started in 1849 by two German-Americans; Charles Pfizer and his cousin, Charles Erhart, who brought together their Chemistry and confectionery expertise to start a business. The two began in Brooklyn, New York operating in one building, which served as their office, factory, laboratory, and store. Pfizer’s father provided them with a loan, which they used as capital to start their business (Pfizer, 2015). Santonin was among their first products, which cured intestinal worms – a widespread ailment at the time. The two business men became creative and added a flavor of an almond toffee. The sales of the Santonin were very good, and the two realized instant success.

Pfizer got a breakthrough during the Civil War where it sold painkillers, disinfectants, preservatives, and solutions such as iodine, chloroform, morphine, mercurial, and campor. When the company had expanded enough, the two businessmen moved its headquarters to Manhattan in the year 1868. In 1882, a warehouse was then opened in Chicago to cater for mass production of medicine (Pfizer, 2015).

How it started

The convulsion brought about by the American Civil War in 1862 had as much effects on the pharmaceutical industry as it had on the general American society. What has been described as the first industrial war was marked by the production of drugs as well as the manufacturing of weapons. The Union armies suddenly needed enormous amounts of antiseptics and painkillers, and this provided a great opportunity for Pfizer to expand its drug production, which it did. By 1868, the company experienced a great expansion of its production lines and the doubling of its revenues (Pfizer, 2015).

After the end of the war, the company continued focusing on industrial chemicals like it did on medicines. This led to the production of citric acid required in the emergent soft drinks industry thereby stimulating the expansion of today’s common brands such as Coca Cola, Pepsi, and Dr. Pepper (Pfizer, 2015). This became Pfizer’s backbone for a long period and laid the basis for the company’s continued growth. Moreover, the disruption of tartaric acid supply because of the Civil War in addition to increased tariffs prompted Pfizer to develop its production thus becoming the leading chemical suppliers in the U.S.

How it works

The company goes through several phases in developing and approving new drugs. The first phase is marked by clinical trials, which involve the administration of experimental therapy to humans for the first time. Trials in this phase usually focus on making sure that the therapy is safe for human use, rather than its effectiveness in the treatment of a particular ailment. In phase two of the development and approval of a new drug, the effectiveness of a drug in the treatment of a particular ailment or medical condition is assessed. Data about the experimental drug’s safety, potential risks, and side effects are also gathered in this phase (Pfizer, 2015),.

Phase three involves the testing of the results derived from earlier trials in a much bigger scope of many more individuals and collecting more information on the safety and effectiveness of the experimental drug. This phase generally provides the basis for the new drug’s benefit-risk assessment and much of the key information concerning the analyzed drug is included in the eventual labeling after the approval of the relevant regulatory authorities. Pfizer then files an application with a country’s relevant health regulatory authorities. In the U.S., for instance, the company files a New Drug Application (NDA) with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In Europe, Pfizer files a Market Authorization Application (MAA) with the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) (Pfizer, 2015). In the application, the company must provide a clear description of the drug’s manufacturing process together with the quality data and results from every pre-clinical and clinical test. The final phase of Pfizer’s development and approval of a drug is the conduction of post-marketing studies after regulatory approval. This stage is critical in giving information about the drug’s ongoing use.

Effects on the U.S. Economy

Being a multinational company and a world leader in pharmaceuticals, Pfizer has a significant effect on the U.S. economy. Since the year 2000, the company embarked on various mega-mergers including the acquisition of Warner-Lambert in the year 2000, Pharmacia & Upjohn two year later, and the recent acquisition of Wyeth in the year 2009. Today, the organization’s sheer size is mind-boggling and has more than 100,000 employees. It is reported that the company pays up to $3.1 billion in corporate tax annually (Pfizer, 2015). So significant has the organization been to the U.S. economy that it affords to use a portion of its profits to influence the political bearing of the U.S. The company is said to have spent about $25 million to become the 6th largest Washington lobbyer in pushing for Obamacare reforms alone. In addition, the organization funds campaigns against counterfeit drugs (Pfizer, 2015)

However, the company has been criticized for its merger with Allergan, which would shift its operations from the U.S. to Ireland, hence saving the company about $1 billion in annual taxes. Critics of this move include Democratic presidential hopefuls Bernie Sanders, Hillary Clinton, and Martin O’Malley.


As mentioned above, the most recent scandal that the company has been involved in is its Pfizer-Allergan merger. The motives behind the merger are seen as saving the money paid in taxes in the U.S. By merging with Allergan, the company is said to save up to a third of its annual taxes. However, Pfizer claims that its motives are simply to dedicate more of its money, time, and resources to providing new treatments to ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease.

In the past, Pfizer has also been involved in fraud. In recent years, the company has agreed to various settlements over illegal marketing charges. For example, Bextra, one of Pfizer’s drugs was involved in a case that cost the organization about $2.3 billion in settling criminal and civil allegations, which was at the time a record for the biggest settlement of fraud in the healthcare industry (Harris, 2009). Other drugs manufactured by Pfizer and which have been involved in charges of illegal marketing include Geodon, Lyrica, Zyvox, Detrol, Nuerontin, and the famous Lipitor.

Pfizer settled a $49 million fine in 2002 on claims that it had been involved in fraud with the Medicaid program by overcharging customers for the Lipitor drug. Other settlements included the 2004 Nuerontiin settlement that cost $430 million and the 2011 Detrol settlement that cost $14.5 million. All these cases of fraud have cast a dark shadow over the organization’s integrity. The company continues to experience legal challenges. In 2012, Pfizer paid $164 million in a settlement of a lawsuit, which claimed that it misled investigators on Celebrex clinical results. A month later, Pfizer also settled a case where it was accused of misleading investigators on the risks of Pristiq and was thus fined $67.5 million (Harris, 2009).


In conclusion, Pfizer is a humongous company with a very rich history. The company has been responsible for the production of known and trusted pharmaceuticals over many years. Nevertheless, Pfizer’s integrity has been compromised by the many cases it is involved in concerning fraud. The company’s recent merger with Allergan has been accused of having ill motives such as evading taxes in the U.S. However, despite litigation that results from some of the company’s drugs, Pfizer has continued its dominance in the global pharmaceutical industry. Although the company’s merger with Allergan is termed as a disgrace in the U.S., the business aspect of the deal may further enhance its influence in the world.




Harris, G. (2009, Sept. 3). Pfizer pays $2.3 billion to settle marketing case. The New York Times.     Retrieved from

Pfizer. (2015). Pfizer Inc.: Evolving to meet the needs of a changing society. Retrieved from   


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Code of Professional Ethics

Exercise 1: Code of Professional Ethics

Almost every professional society has developed and posted on-line its code of conduct which members of that profession are expected to follow in order to remain “members of good standing”. In this exercise, I want you to examine the code of conduct that is most closely associated with Business Management. In a 2 typewritten page review of your profession’s code of conduct (please attach the code to the exercise) I want you to examine and discuss such things as:

1.) What issues/topics are covered? Why these?
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Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Is there a health-related cause that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is not currently covering that you would like to see included?



highly effective organizations case studies

Compare and contrast the case studies in an effort to describe highly effective organizations.

Then, assess the behavior and structure of the organizations. Explain what is effective, what is not effective, and identify specific approaches to make organizations more effective.

Use at least two credible sources

This assignment should be 1300 to 1500 words (4–5 pages) when completed.


At approximately 15:45 PM, Strike Team 2642 carefully navigated the one-lane gravel road that led to Rodgers Ridge, where they had been ordered to engage in some brush clearing and structural defense operations around three large vacation homes that were distributed across the ridge top. Captain Doug Chandler was leading a strike team for the first time, and he cautiously watched the two separate smoke columns that spouted from the 1600-acre Camp Creek Fire and the 2300-acre Jones Ranch Fire in the valley just beyond the ridge. For the moment, the wind was at their backs and would be pushing the fire away from the ridge.

The five units that made up Captain Chandler’s strike team were all heavy brush (HB) units, each staffed with one officer and three fire fighters and carrying 500 gallons (1892.5 liters) of water, foam, and the normal complement of tools. As they reached the large turnaround near the ridge top, the captain noted that all three homes were built within 50 ft (15.2 m) of each other, with one being the closest to the lip of the canyon, and the other two set back along a single driveway that led off the main road. At 4:20 PM, Captain Chandler ordered two of his brush units, HB26 and HB27, to proceed all the way down the driveway to the house at the end and to “prepare the residence house for defensive operations.” He sent brush units HB28 and HB29 to the two remaining houses and ordered them to prep those structures, while he stayed in a “lookout” position in HB25 near the driveway entrance.

At 4:27 PM, Captain Chandler received a call on his cell phone from the Operations Division. They informed him that the weather was due to change, and that he could expect temperatures to increase for another 30 minutes to a high of 94°F. Humidity was expected to stay extremely low, and the winds were to turn 180° by 7:00 PM. Captain Chandler in turn contacted his strike team by radio, telling them, “Strike Team 2642, all units, just be advised we’re due for a wind change.” He issued no further orders, and radio records showed that only HB26 acknowledged the message. Eighteen minutes later, at 4:45 PM, Captain Chandler in HB25 again communicated a message to his strike team: “ST 2642, all units, from my position it appears the wind has changed and may be pushing the fire toward the ridge.” This time, both HB26 and HB27 acknowledged, both with the single word “Copy.”

Just 12 minutes later, at 4:57 PM, HB26 frantically radioed that they were in danger. “HB26 and 27 here, we’ve … we’ve got lots of fire rolling toward us and it appears it’ll cut between our location and yours.” (Postincident analysis indicated the fire was moving at a speed of greater than 10 ft per second [3.1 m per second] at that point.)

As Captain Chandler attempted to radio his Operations Division for assistance, he was “walked on” by HB26, who again called out, “27 from 26 … we’re taking cover inside the house, you should follow us.”

At this point, Captain Chandler ordered HB28 and HB29 to “pull back immediately from your positions, pull back to the gravel turnaround where my rig is based.” He then radioed, “Break … HB26, what do you need?” HB26 responded, “The fire has rolled over our position … both units HB26 and HB27 are on fire. We are in the house in need of assistance.”


Rescue Flight Four, a Bell 430 helicopter, hammered through the hot August day, eating up the miles between its base station in the city center and the rural Cherry River, where fire crews were searching for a lost child who was believed trapped underwater. Paramedic Maria Gomez, sitting up front with Pilot Marty Chase, eyed the towering thunderclouds that appeared to grow in front of them. Frantic radio transmissions could be heard from the scene: Fire fighters in a boat, using an underwater camera, had spotted the little girl and would be deploying divers any moment. Gomez flipped the visor of her helmet up and looked over at Marty, expecting him to comment on the weather. At that very moment, Marty pulled his microphone close to his mouth and said to the medical crew, “I need your full attention here.”

Nurse Tom Polk, who was riding in the back of the aircraft preparing medical equipment, turned in his seat and stuck his head into the front compartment. Tom could see the heavy rain falling from the clouds, and he also could hear the ground crews as they prepared to attempt a rescue. The pressure was on.

Marty spoke up, “I can divert around to the west of these squalls, but it will take an extra 10 to 12 minutes. Alternatively, we can turn around and tell the ground crews to transport by ground.”

Gomez looked at Polk, who had far more airborne experience. Polk said, “Let’s try going around, Marty, and if you see anything at all that makes you worried, abort and we’ll let the fire fighters know immediately.”

Marty then restated to the crew his intentions. “We’re going to try an approach that diverts us to the west. If any of you gets uncomfortable, or if you think it’s going to take too long and we should advise them to go by ground, speak up.” Gomez gave the ground crews the new updated estimated arrival time, and Marty banked the aircraft to the left. Thankfully, the crew was able to skirt the storm, and 20 minutes after taking off from their hospital base, the big 430 settled onto the grass near a large camping area.

Gomez and Polk with their medical equipment bags stepped from the helicopter moments after it touched down. Both crouched low and hurried toward the group of fire fighters who were working near the bank of the Cherry River. Gomez, who also worked as a fire fighter/paramedic in the city where the aircraft was based, noticed that none of the local fire fighters working next to the river were wearing personal flotation devices (PFDs). She knew that at the agency where she worked, PFDs were standard safety equipment for anyone working near a body of water. Glancing over at the fire department pickup that had towed the boat to the scene, she noted several PFDs stored in the pickup bed. Before she could say anything to the incident commander, however, the little girl was pulled from the water and placed into the boat.

Thirty minutes earlier, three-year-old Susie Bailey had slipped away from her family, who had been seated at a nearby picnic table. After searching for a few minutes, the family called the local fire department, who responded with their water rescue team.

Paramedic Gomez and Nurse Polk started resuscitative efforts the moment Susie was removed from the boat. After they placed a breathing tube in her trachea and started CPR, they moved Susie to the aircraft for the return trip to Samaritan Trauma Center.

As Rescue Flight Four landed on the helipad at Samaritan Trauma Center, the flight crew was met by a team from Samaritan’s emergency department. During the short flight, Nurse Polk and Paramedic Gomez had been able to restore Susie’s pulse, but the little girl had not yet started breathing on her own. With Polk managing the airway and Gomez stabilizing the intravenous lines they had started, Susie was wheeled into the brightly lit trauma bay.

As the flight crew handed off care of their patient, they watched the highly trained physician and nursing team go to work. Even though every movement looked well choreographed, Polk and Gomez could see that Susie’s cardiac rhythm was starting to falter. Several minutes went by as the flight crew stood on the side watching a medical resident and the attending pediatric emergency medicine physician continue the resuscitation.

Paramedic Gomez then observed that the patient’s abdomen was distended, and she turned to comment about it to Nurse Polk. However, Nurse Polk had left the trauma bay, and the physician team continued to work. Gomez then leaned in and mentioned the distended abdomen to the nurse taking notes. Her concern was that the decrease in ventilatory capacity caused by a distended abdomen could make the child retain carbon dioxide, creating an acidosis that could cause cardiac problems.

However, even after Gomez’s comments, the recording nurse remained silent, unwilling to challenge a doctor. After several minutes Paramedic Gomez spoke up and mentioned the distended abdomen to the attending physician, suggesting that decompressing the abdomen might help. A quick assessment by the trauma team revealed a high carbon dioxide level and a low pH. The medical team decompressed the stomach, ventilations became easier, and the cardiac rhythm stabilized. However, Susie died a day later from complications.


Scenario A

In a large California city, Engine 38 turned onto Bay View Boulevard with its siren blaring. Fire Fighter Andrea Collins looked across the cab at Fire Fighter Ian Ainoa and noticed that he had not fastened his seat belt. She wondered whether to say something to him. Ian was far more experienced than she was and had been working the busy Engine 38 for seven years. Andrea was a “newbie,” and this was her first shift working at the busiest and most decorated station in the department.

Scenario B

Paramedics Gill Pryor and Mandy Humphrey, working for an urban EMS program in Florida, arrived on scene at Crescent Bay Park, where a 26-year-old woman lay unconscious on the boat dock. Patient Karli Kumar had just been pulled off of a ski boat. Fifteen minutes earlier, she had been struck by another boat while water skiing, and she had suffered a serious head injury. Gill noted that the local fire service was already on scene, and they had started preparing to intubate Karli using paralytic medications. As Gill walked up to the patient’s side, the fire medic handed Gill a syringe and said “Push the meds. We are ready with the tube.” Gill cleaned off the intravenous port and started administering the medication, all the while wondering what exactly was in the syringe.

Scenario C

Captain Ronald Goldhaber walked the one block from where his crew had parked their ladder truck to the scene of the fire in a suburban Oregon town. Three stores at the east end of the 10-year-old strip mall were fully involved, with fire pushing out the large front windows. The next exposure was a large jewelry store, and Goldhaber’s four-person crew from Ladder 7 had just been ordered to vertically ventilate that particular store. Goldhaber noted that the fire had not yet penetrated the wall separating this store from its neighbors, but there was a considerable amount of black smoke pushing hard from under the front eaves. Captain Goldhaber turned to his most experienced fire fighter, Ted Hackman, and asked him what he thought of the order they had just been given. In the postincident investigative notes, Goldhaber reported that Fire Fighter Hackman had simply rolled his eyes and said nothing. In those same notes, Hackman said that he “knew this was a bad situation,” but didn’t say anything because “I’m just the fire fighter.”

After Ladder 7 climbed onto the roof from the rear of the building, the truss structures in the involved stores failed, pulling the wall of the jewelry store down and subsequently collapsing the jewelry store roof. Miraculously, the roof failed in a rearward direction, and the crew from Ladder 7 literally slid into the parking lot with minor injuries.

Tampa General Hospital

Disease: Infectious Diseases

Tampa General Hospital was started back in 1927 on Davis Island. When the hospital first opened it only provided room for 186 bed alongside a nursing school. Currently, the hospital provides 1007 beds with abundant staff and the primary teaching hospital for the USF Health Morsani College of Medicine. On their website, there is a lot of information and resources available to patients within the Hillsborough and Pasco County region that will help with providing better care.

There is a section on the website titled “Infectious Diseases” that describes a range of different infectious diseases treated by the hospital. As the site states, there are many illnesses out there from the common cold to more complex diseases. Many of the diseases are grouped into different categories such as bacterial, bone, fungal, joint, tropical, parasitic and viral infections. Anyone can contract an infectious disease, especially those with a weakened immune system. Tampa General provides services for immunization to diagnose, treatment, long-term symptom management along with continuinig education on infection control and prevention.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Is there a health-related cause that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is not currently covering that you would like to see included?


The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is a private foundation that was started in the year 2000. The foundation was started by former Microsoft chairman and founder Bill Gates and the wife Melinda Gates and was previously known as William H. Gates Foundation. The foundation is guided by their vision “every life has equal value” where they strive to make people live productive and healthy lives. The foundation has made an impact in developing countries especially in Africa where health programs have been funded to fight tropical diseases like malaria. The foundation has also funded the research for finding a vaccine for the novel corona virus (Mandal, 2020).

Global Health Organizations

Global health challenges require partnership between governments and private organizations in order to fight such challenges. International organizations have assisted in funding health programs that has ensured the success of health programs. According to Anbazhagan and Anbazhagan (2016) NGOs can work with international agencies and institutions to fund, implement and evaluate health programs. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is one organization that has thrived in funding health programs that have been beneficial for populations. The foundation is the largest private foundation in the world started by Bill and Melinda Gates. The recent novel corona virus that has disrupted the lives of people globally has had adverse effects when it comes to health and health care. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have committed more than $350 million towards the fight of the virus. According to Mandal (2000) some of the funding is being used to find a potential vaccine.


International organizations play an important role in dealing with the challenges of global health. These organizations provide funding and the resources needed when it comes to addressing global health challenges. It is through these organizations that health programs are able to run professional leading to success of global health programs.


Anbazhagan, Suguna & Anbazhagan, Surekha. (2016). Role of non-governmental organizations in global health. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 17-22. 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20151544.

Mandal Ananya. (2020). Bill and Melinda Gates fund potential vaccine against COVID-19. News Medical Life Sciences. Retrived from

The Bill Gates and Melinda Foundation. (n.d.). News. Retrieved from